Monday, August 22, 2011

Physical therapy


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Physical therapy
Intervention

Military Physical Therapists working with patients on balance problems, orthopedic/musculoskeletal injuries, amputee, compression wrapping to control edema, and during evaluation/assessment of strength, flexibility, and joint range of motion
ICD-9-CM 93.0-93.3
MeSH D026741
Physical therapy (or physiotherapy), often abbreviated PT, is a health care profession. Physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment/intervention, habilitation and rehabilitation. This encompasses physical, psychological, emotional, and social well being. Physical therapy involves the interaction between physical therapist, patients/clients, other health professionals, families, care givers, and communities in a process where movement potential is assessed and goals are agreed upon, using knowledge and skills unique to physical therapists. [1] Physical therapy is performed by a physical therapist (PT) or physiotherapist (physio), and sometimes services are provided by a physical therapist assistant (PTA) acting under their direction.[2] PTs are healthcare professionals who diagnose and treat individuals of all ages, from newborns to the very oldest, who have medical problems or other health-related conditions, illnesses, or injuries that limit their abilities to move and perform functional activities as well as they would like in their daily lives.[3] PTs use an individual's history and physical examination to arrive at a diagnosis and establish a management plan and, when necessary, incorporate the results of laboratory and imaging studies. Electrodiagnostic testing (e.g., electromyograms and nerve conduction velocity testing) may also be of assistance.[4] PT management commonly includes prescription of or assistance with specific exercises, manual therapy, education, manipulation and other interventions. In addition, PTs work with individuals to prevent the loss of mobility before it occurs by developing fitness and wellness-oriented programs for healthier and more active lifestyles, providing services to individuals and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. This includes providing services in circumstances where movement and function are threatened by aging, injury, disease or environmental factors. Functional movement is central to what it means to be healthy.
Physical therapy has many specialties including cardiopulmonary, geriatrics, neurologic, orthopaedic and pediatrics. PTs practice in many settings, such as outpatient clinics or offices, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, skilled nursing facilities, extended care facilities, private homes, education and research centers, schools, hospices, industrial workplaces or other occupational environments, fitness centers and sports training facilities.[5]
Physical therapists also practice in non-patient care roles such as health policy,[6][7][8][9] health insurance, health care administration and as health care executives.[10][11] Physical therapists are involved in the medical-legal field serving as experts, performing peer review and independent medical examinations.[12]
Education qualifications vary greatly by country. The span of education ranges from some countries having little formal education to others requiring masters or doctoral degrees.

Contents

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[edit] History

Physicians like Hippocrates and later Galenus are believed to have been the first practitioners of physical therapy, advocating massage, manual therapy techniques and hydrotherapy to treat people in 460 B.C.[13][verification needed] After the development of orthopedics in the eighteenth century, machines like the Gymnasticon were developed to treat gout and similar diseases by systematic exercise of the joints, similar to later developments in physical therapy.[14]
The earliest documented origins of actual physical therapy as a professional group date back to Per Henrik Ling, “Father of Swedish Gymnastics,” who founded the Royal Central Institute of Gymnastics (RCIG) in 1813 for massage, manipulation, and exercise. The Swedish word for physical therapist is “sjukgymnast” = “sick-gymnast.” In 1887, PTs were given official registration by Sweden’s National Board of Health and Welfare.
Other countries soon followed. In 1894 four nurses in Great Britain formed the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy.[15] The School of Physiotherapy at the University of Otago in New Zealand in 1913,[16] and the United States' 1914 Reed College in Portland, Oregon, which graduated "reconstruction aides."[17]
Modern physical therapy was established in Britain towards the end of the 19th century. Soon following American orthopedic surgeons began treating children with disabilities and began employing women trained in physical education, massage, and remedial exercise. These treatments were applied and promoted further during the Polio outbreak of 1916. During the First World War women were recruited to work with and restore physical function to injured soldiers, and the field of physical therapy was institutionalized. In 1918 the term "Reconstruction Aide" was used to refer to individuals practicing physical therapy. The first school of physical therapy was established at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washtington D.C. following the outbreak of World War I.[18]
Research catalyzed the physical therapy movement. The first physical therapy research was published in the United States in March 1921 in "The PT Review." In the same year, Mary McMillan organized the Physical Therapy Association (now called the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). In 1924, the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation promoted the field by touting physical therapy as a treatment for polio.[19]
Treatment through the 1940s primarily consisted of exercise, massage, and traction. Manipulative procedures to the spine and extremity joints began to be practiced, especially in the British Commonwealth countries, in the early 1950s.[20][21] Later that decade, physical therapists started to move beyond hospital-based practice to outpatient orthopedic clinics, public schools, colleges/universities, geriatric settings (skilled nursing facilities), rehabilitation centers and medical centers.
In 1921 in the United States physical therapists formed the first professional association called the American Women's Physical Therapeutic Association. This gave birth to what is known today as the APTA (American Physical Therapy Association), and currently represents approximately 76,000 members throughout the United States. The APTA defines physical therapy as: "clinical applications in the restoration, maintenance, and promotion of optimal physical function."[22]
Specialization for physical therapy in the U.S. occurred in 1974, with the Orthopaedic Section of the APTA being formed for those physical therapists specializing in orthopaedics. In the same year, the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists was formed,[23] which has ever since played an important role in advancing manual therapy worldwide.

[edit] Education

World Confederation of Physical Therapy (WCPT) recognises there is considerable diversity in the social, economic, cultural, and political environments in which physical therapist education is conducted throughout the world. WCPT recommends physical therapist entry-level educational programs be based on university or university-level studies, of a minimum of four years, independently validated and accredited as being at a standard that accords graduates full statutory and professional recognition. [2] WCPT acknowledges there is innovation and variation in program delivery and in entry-level qualifications, including first university degrees (Bachelors/Baccalaureate/Licensed or equivalent), Masters and Doctorate entry qualifications. What is expected is that any program should deliver a curriculum that will enable physical therapists to attain the knowledge, skills, and attributes described in these guidelines. Professional education prepares physical therapists to be autonomous practitioners, that may work in collaboration with other members of the health care team.[7]
Physical therapist entry-level educational programs integrate theory, evidence and practice along a continuum of learning. This begins with admission to an accredited physical therapy program and ending with retirement from active practice.[2]
206 of 213 accredited physical therapy programs in the US are accredited at the doctoral level offering the Doctor of Physical Therapy degree (DPT)
The physical therapist professional curriculum includes content and learning experiences in the clinical sciences (e.g., content about the cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, metabolic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, integumentary, musculoskeletal, and neuromuscular systems and the medical and surgical conditions frequently seen by physical therapists)
Curriculum related to Patient/Client Management[24] includes:
  • Screening to determine when patients/clients need further examination or consultation by a physicaltherapist or referral to another health care professional.
  • Examination: Examine patients/clients by obtaining a history from them and from other sources. Examine patients/clients by performing systems reviews. Examine patients/clients by selecting and administering culturally appropriate and age related tests and measures. Tests and measures include, but are not limited to, those that assess: a. Aerobic Capacity/Endurance, b. Anthropometric Characteristics, c. Arousal, Attention, and Cognition, d. Assistive and Adaptive Devices, e. Circulation (Arterial, Venous, Lymphatic), f. Cranial and Peripheral Nerve Integrity, g. Environmental, Home, and Work (Job/School/Play) Barriers, h. Ergonomics and Body Mechanics, i. Gait, Locomotion, and Balance, j. Integumentary Integrity, k. Joint Integrity and Mobility, l. Motor Function (Motor Control and Motor Learning), m. Muscle Performance (including Strength, Power, and Endurance), n. Neuromotor Development and Sensory Integration, o. Orthotic, Protective, and Supportive Devices, p. Pain, q. Posture, r. Prosthetic Requirements, s. Range of Motion (including Muscle Length), t. Reflex Integrity, u. Self-Care and Home Management (including activities of daily living [ADL] and instrumental activities of daily living [IADL]), v. Sensory Integrity, w. Ventilation and Respiration/Gas Exchange, x. Work (Job/School/Play), Community, and Leisure Integration or Reintegration (including IADL)
  • Evaluation: Evaluate data from the examination (history, systems review, and tests and measures) to make clinical judgments regarding patients/clients.
  • Diagnosis: Determine a diagnosis that guides future patient/client management.
  • Prognosis: Determine patient/client prognoses.
  • Plan of Care: Collaborate with patients/clients, family members, payers, other professionals, and other individuals to determine a plan of care that is acceptable, realistic, culturally competent, and patient-centered.
  • Intervention:Provide physical therapy interventions to achieve patient/client goals and outcomes. Interventions include: a. Therapeutic Exercise, b. Functional Training in Self-Care and Home Management, c. Functional Training in Work (Job/School/Play), Community, and Leisure Integration or Reintegration, d. Manual Therapy Techniques (including Mobilization/Manipulation Thrust and Nonthrust Techniques), e. Prescription, Application, and, as Appropriate, Fabrication of Devices and Equipment, f. Airway Clearance Techniques, g. Integumentary Repair and Protection Techniques, h. Electrotherapeutic Modalities,
  • Provide effective culturally competent instruction to patients/clients and others to achieve goals and outcomes.
  • Prevention, Health Promotion, Fitness, and Wellness: Provide culturally competent physical therapy services for prevention, health promotion, fitness, and wellness to individuals, groups, and communities. Apply principles of prevention to defined population groups.
  • Students completing a Doctor of Physical Therapy program are also required to successfully complete clinical internships prior to graduation.

[edit] Specialty areas

Because the body of knowledge of physical therapy is quite large, some PTs specialize in a specific clinical area. While there are many different types of physical therapy,[25] the American Board of Physical Therapy Specialties list eight specialist certifications.

[edit] Cardiovascular & Pulmonary

Cardiovascular and pulmonary rehabilitation physical therapists treat a wide variety of individuals with cardiopulmonary disorders or those who have had cardiac or pulmonary surgery. Primary goals of this specialty include increasing endurance and functional independence. Manual therapy is used in this field to assist in clearing lung secretions experienced with cystic fibrosis. Disorders, including heart attacks, post coronary bypass surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pulmonary fibrosis, treatments can benefit[citation needed] from cardiovascular and pulmonary specialized physical therapists.[26][verification needed]

[edit] Clinical Electrophysiology

This specialty area encompasses electrotherapy/physical agents, electrophysiological evaluation (EMG/NCV), physical agents, and wound management.

[edit] Geriatric

Geriatric physical therapy covers a wide area of issues concerning people as they go through normal adult aging but is usually focused on the older adult. There are many conditions that affect many people as they grow older and include but are not limited to the following: arthritis, osteoporosis, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, hip and joint replacement, balance disorders, incontinence, etc. Geriatric physical therapists specialize in treating older adults.

[edit] Integumentary

Integumentary (treatment of conditions involving the skin and related organs). Common conditions managed include wounds and burns. Physical therapists utilize surgical instruments, mechanical lavage, dressings and topical agents to debride necrotic tissue and promote tissue healing. Other commonly used interventions include exercise, edema control, splinting, and compression garments.

[edit] Neurological

Neurological physical therapy is a field focused on working with individuals who have a neurological disorder or disease. These include Alzheimer's disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), ALS, brain injury, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, and stroke. Common impairments associated with neurologic conditions include impairments of vision, balance, ambulation, activities of daily living, movement, muscle strength and loss of functional independence.[26] Physiotherapy can address many of these impairments and aid in restoring and maintaining function, slowing disease progression, and improving quality of life.

[edit] Orthopedic

Orthopedic physical therapists diagnose, manage, and treat disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system including rehabilitation after orthopaedic surgery. This specialty of physical therapy is most often found in the out-patient clinical setting. Orthopedic therapists are trained in the treatment of post-operative orthopedic procedures, fractures, acute sports injuries, arthritis, sprains, strains, back and neck pain, spinal conditions and amputations.
Joint and spine mobilization/manipulation, therapeutic exercise, neuromuscular reeducation, hot/cold packs, and electrical muscle stimulation (e.g., cryotherapy, iontophoresis, electrotherapy) are modalities often used to expedite recovery in the orthopedic setting.[27][verification needed] Additionally, an emerging adjunct to diagnosis and treatment is the use of sonography for diagnosis and to guide treatments such as muscle retraining.[28][29][30] Those who have suffered injury or disease affecting the muscles, bones, ligaments, or tendons will benefit from assessment by a physical therapist specialized in orthopedics.

[edit] Pediatric

Pediatric physical therapy assists in early detection of health problems and uses a wide variety of modalities to treat disorders in the pediatric population. These therapists are specialized in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of infants, children, and adolescents with a variety of congenital, developmental, neuromuscular, skeletal, or acquired disorders/diseases. Treatments focus on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance as well as cognitive and sensory processing/integration. Children with developmental delays, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, or torticollis may be treated[citation needed] by pediatric physical therapists.[26][verification needed]

[edit] Sports

Physical therapists can be involved in the care of athletes from recreational to professional and Olympians. This area of practice (Athletic Training) includes athletic injury management, including acute care, treatment and rehabilitation, prevention, and education.

[edit] Women's health

Women's health physical therapy addresses women's issues related to child birth, and post partum. These conditions include lymphedema, osteoporosis, pelvic pain, prenatal and post partum periods, and urinary incontinence.[31]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Description of Physical Therapy – The World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT)
  2. ^ American Physical Therapy Association. "Discovering Physical Therapy. What is physical therapy". American Physical Therapy Association. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  3. ^ "Physical Therapists". US Department of Labor. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  4. ^ American Physical Therapy Association Section on Clinical Electrophysiology and Wound Management. "Curriculum Content Guidelines for Electrophysiologic Evaluation" (PDF). Educational Guidelines. American Physical Therapy Association. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  5. ^ American Physical Therapy Association (2008-01-17). "APTA Background Sheet 2008". American Physical Therapy Association. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  6. ^ Health policy implications for patient education in physical therapy http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3956/is_199901/ai_n8843473/
  7. ^ Initiatives in Rehabilitation Research http://ptjournal.apta.org/cgi/content/full/86/1/141
  8. ^ Gail M. Jensen, PhD, PT, FAPTA http://chpe.creighton.edu/people/profiles/jensen.htm
  9. ^ Smith joins Health Policy & Administration faculty http://www.wsutoday.wsu.edu/pages/publications.asp?Action=Detail&PublicationID=21304&TypeID=3
  10. ^ DPT/MBA Program http://www.goizueta.emory.edu/degree/fulltimemba/DPT-MBA.html
  11. ^ Orozco Appointed CEO of Rancho http://pt.usc.edu/SubLayout.aspx?id=2682
  12. ^ WHY DO WE OFFER PHYSICAL THERAPY CONSULTATIVE SERVICES? http://www.imxmed.com/pt_services.html
  13. ^ Wharton MA. Health Care Systems I; Slippery Rock University. 1991
  14. ^ Sarah Bakewell, "Illustrations from the Wellcome Institute Library: Medical Gymnastics and the Cyriax Collection," Medical History 41 (1997), 487–495.
  15. ^ Chartered Society of Physiotherapy (n.d.). "History of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy". Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  16. ^ Knox, Bruce (2007-01-29). "History of the School of Physiotherapy". School of Physiotherapy Centre for Physiotherapy Research. University of Otago. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  17. ^ Reed College (n.d.). "Mission and History". About Reed. Reed College. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  18. ^ http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/mowihsp/health/PTdevel.htm
  19. ^ Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute (n.d.). "History". About Us. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  20. ^ McKenzie, R A (1998). The cervical and thoracic spine: mechanical diagnosis and therapy. New Zealand: Spinal Publications Ltd.. pp. 16–20. ISBN 978-0959774672.
  21. ^ McKenzie, R (2002). "Patient Heal Thyself". Worldwide Spine & Rehabilitation 2 (1): 16–20.
  22. ^ http://www.apta.org//AM/Template.cfm?Section=&WebsiteKey=
  23. ^ Basson, Annalie (2010). "History: Abridged version of IFOMPT History". International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists (IFOMPT). Retrieved 2011-01-09.
  24. ^ Commission on Acredidation in Physical Therapy Education Criteria http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=PT_Programs3&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=62414
  25. ^ American Physical Therapy Association (n.d.). "APTA Sections". American Physical Therapy Association. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  26. ^ a b c Inverarity, Laura; Grossman, K (2007-11-28). "Types of Physical Therapy". About.com. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2008-05-29.
  27. ^ Cameron, Michelle H. (2003). Physical agents in rehabilitation: from research to practice. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-9378-4.
  28. ^ Bunce SM, Moore AP, Hough AD (May 2002). "M-mode ultrasound: a reliable measure of transversus abdominis thickness?". Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 17 (4): 315–7. doi:10.1016/S0268-0033(02)00011-6. PMID 12034127.
  29. ^ Wallwork TL, Hides JA, Stanton WR (October 2007). "Intrarater and interrater reliability of assessment of lumbar multifidus muscle thickness using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging". J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 37 (10): 608–12. PMID 17970407.
  30. ^ Henry SM, Westervelt KC (June 2005). "The use of real-time ultrasound feedback in teaching abdominal hollowing exercises to healthy subjects". J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 35 (6): 338–45. PMID 16001905.
  31. ^ http://www.womenshealthapta.org/plp/index.cfm

Thursday, August 18, 2011

Every computer user must watch !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

video
A very illustrative video to prevent Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI) when using computer, Also Parents please aware of the postural deformities, Muscle weakness, Eye problems, laziness, stress, depression, generalized malaise which occurs to your young ones when they are free to use computers for playing games or web search.. Please be a mentor for their physical and psychological well being instead of jargon computer games.. These physical games enhances they mood, sweats out their energy so that they tend to eat more healthily which in turn reduces childhood obesity (infantile obesity, teenage obesity).


Most Common For Computer Users !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Repetitive strain injury (RSI) (also known as repetitive stress injury, repetitive motion injuries, repetitive motion disorder (RMD), cumulative trauma disorder (CT), occupational overuse syndrome, overuse syndrome, regional musculoskeletal disorder) is an injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression (pressing against hard surfaces), or sustained or awkward positions. Different sections of this article present contrasting perspectives regarding the causes of RSI.
Types of RSIs that affect computer users may include non-specific arm pain or work related upper limb disorder (WRULD). Conditions such as RSI tend to be associated with both physical and psychosocial stressors.


Causes

Gloves to avoid RSI during typing.
RSI is believed by many to be caused due to lifestyle without ergonomic care[citation needed], E.g. While working in front of computers, driving, traveling etc. Simple reasons like 'Using a blunt knife for everyday chopping of vegetables', may cause RSI.
Other typical habits that some sources believe lead to RSI:[citation needed]
  • Reading or doing tasks for extended periods of time while looking down.
  • Sleeping on an inadequate bed/mattress or sitting in a bad armchair and/or in an uncomfortable position.
  • Carrying heavy items.
  • Holding one's phone between neck and shoulder.
  • Watching TV in incorrect position e.g. Too much to the left/right.
  • Sleeping with head forward, while traveling.
  • Prolonged use of the hands, wrists, back, neck, etc.

Treatment

On their own, most RSIs will resolve spontaneously provided the area is first given enough rest when the RSI first begins. However, without such care, some RSIs have been known to persist for years, or have needed to be cured with surgery.
The most often prescribed treatments for repetitive strain injuries are rest, exercise, braces and massage. A variety of medical products also are available to augment these therapies. Since the computer workstation is frequently blamed for RSIs, particularly of the hand and wrist, ergonomic adjustments of the workstation are often recommended.

Ergonomics

Modifications of posture and arm use (ergonomics) are often recommended.

Ergonomics: the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace

Exercise

Exercise decreases the risk of developing RSI.
  • Doctors sometimes recommend that RSI sufferers engage in specific strengthening exercises, for example to improve posture.
  • In light of the fact that a lifestyle that involves sitting at a computer for extended periods of time increases the probability that an individual will develop excessive kyphosis, theoretically the same exercises that are prescribed for thoracic outlet syndrome or kyphotic postural correction would benefit an RSI sufferer.
  • Some sources  recommend motoric exercises and ergo-aerobics to decrease chances of strain injury. Ergo-aerobics target touch typists and people who often use computer keyboard.

Adaptive hardware

Adaptive technology ranging from special keyboards, mouse replacements to pen tablet interfaces might help improve comfort.

Mouse

Switching to a much more ergonomic mouse, such as a roller mouse, vertical mouse or joystick, or switching from using a mouse to a stylus pen with graphic tablet may provide relief, but in chronic RSI they may result only in moving the problem to another area. Using a graphic tablet for general pointing, clicking, and dragging (i.e. not drawing) may take some time to get used to as well. Switching to a trackpad or pointing stick, which requires no gripping or tensing of the muscles in the arms may help as well. Inertial mice (which do not require a surface to operate) might offer an alternative where the user's arm is in a less stressful thumbs up position rather than rotated to thumb inward when holding a normal mouse. Also, since they do not need a surface to operate ("air mice" function by small, forceless, wrist rotations), the wrist and arm can be supported by the desktop.

Keyboards and keyboard alternatives

Exotic keyboards by manufacturers such as Datahand, OrbiTouch, Maltron and Kinesis are available. Also one can use digital pens to avoid the strain coming from typing itself. Other solutions move the mode of input from one's hands entirely. These include the use of voice recognition software or pedals designed for ergonomics and gaming to supplant normal keyboard input.

Adaptive software

There are several kinds of software designed to help in Repetitive Strain Injury. Among them, there are speech recognition software, and break timers. Break timers software reminds the user to pause frequently and perform exercises while working behind a computer. There is also automated mouse-clicking software that has been developed, which can automate repetitive tasks in games and applications.


                                                                                                                      KOUSHIK's Health line

Friday, August 12, 2011

Are Whole Eggs or Egg Whites Better for You?

Are Whole Eggs or Egg Whites Better for You?
by Mike Geary, Certified Nutrition Specialist, Certified Personal Trainer
Author -
The Truth About 6-Pack Abs 

whole eggs are a perfect foodI was on a weekend trip with some friends recently and one of my friends was cooking breakfast for the whole group. I went over to see what he was cooking and saw he was getting ready to make a big batch of eggs.
Well, to my shock and horror, I noticed that he was cracking the eggs open and screening the egg whites into a bowl and throwing out the egg yolks. I asked him why the heck he was throwing out the egg yolks, and he replied something like this...
"because I thought the egg yolks were terrible for you...that's where all the nasty fat and cholesterol is".
And I replied, "you mean that's where all of the nutrition is!"
This is a perfect example of how confused most people are about nutrition. In a world full of misinformation about nutrition, somehow most people now mistakenly think that the egg yolk is the worst part of the egg, when in fact, the YOLK IS THE HEALTHIEST PART OF THE EGG!
By throwing out the yolk and only eating egg whites, you're essentially throwing out the most nutrient dense, antioxidant-rich, vitamin and mineral loaded portion of the egg. The yolks contain so many B-vitamins, trace minerals, vitamin A, folate, choline, lutein, and other powerful nutrients... it's not even worth trying to list them all.
In fact, the egg whites are almost devoid of nutrition compared to the yolks.
Even the protein in egg whites isn't as powerful without the yolks to balance out the amino acid profile and make the protein more bio-available. Not to even mention that the egg yolks from free range chickens are loaded with healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
Yolks contain more than 90% of the calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc, thiamin, B6, folate, and B12, and panthothenic acid of the egg. In addition, the yolks contain ALL of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K in the egg, as well as ALL of the essential fatty acids (EFAs).
And now the common objection I get all the time when I say that the yolks are the most nutritious part of the egg...
"But I heard that whole eggs will skyrocket my cholesterol through the roof"
No, this is FALSE!
First of all, when you eat a food that contains a high amount of dietary cholesterol such as eggs, your body down-regulates it's internal production of cholesterol to balance things out.
On the other hand, if you don't eat enough cholesterol, your body simply produces more since cholesterol has dozens of important vital functions in the body.
healthy whole eggsAnd here's where it gets even more interesting...
There have been plenty of studies lately that indicate that eating whole eggs actually raises your good HDL cholesterol to a higher degree than LDL cholesterol, thereby improving your overall cholesterol ratio and blood chemistry.
And 3rd... high cholesterol is NOT a disease!  Heart disease is a disease...but high cholesterol is NOT.  Cholesterol is actually a VERY important substance in your body and has vitally important functions... it is DEAD WRONG to try to "lower your cholesterol" just because of pharmaceutical companies propaganda that everyone on the planet should be on statin drugs.
If you're interested in this topic of cholesterol specifically, I have another article listed at the bottom of this page about why trying to attack cholesterol is a mistake, and what the REAL deadly risk factors actually are.
In addition, the yolks contain the antioxidant lutein as well as other antioxidants which can help protect you from inflammation within your body (the REAL culprit in heart disease, not dietary cholesterol!), giving yet another reason why the yolks are actually GOOD for you, and not detrimental.
To help bring even more proof that whole eggs are better for you than egg whites, I recently read a University of Connecticut study that showed that a group of men in the study that ate 3 eggs per day for 12 weeks while on a reduced carb, higher fat diet increased their HDL good cholesterol by 20%, while their LDL bad cholesterol stayed the same during the study.  However, the group that ate egg substitutes (egg whites) saw no change in either and did not see the improvement in good cholesterol (remember that higher HDL levels are associated with lower risk of heart disease) that the whole egg eaters did. 
So I hope we've established that whole eggs are not some evil food that will wreck your body... instead whole eggs are FAR superior to egg whites.
But what about the extra calories in the yolks?
This is actually a non-issue and here's why... even though egg yolks contain more calories than just eating the egg whites, the yolks have such a high micro-nutrient density in those calories, that it increases your overall nutrient density per calorie you consume.  Essentially, what this does is help to regulate your appetite for the remainder of the day, so you end up eating less calories overall.  In addition, the healthy fats in the egg yolks help to maintain a good level of fat-burning hormones in your body.
Overall, this means that the extra fats (healthy fats) and calories from the yolk are so nutrient-dense that they actually HELP you to burn off body fat!
Also, your normal supermarket eggs coming from mass factory farming just don't compare nutritionally with organic free range eggs from healthy chickens that are allowed to roam freely and eat a more natural diet.  Your typical cheap grocery store eggs will have lower nutrient levels and a higher omega-6 level and lower omega-3 level.  On the other hand, the cage-free organic eggs from healthier chickens allowed to eat more natural feed and roam freely will have much higher vitamin and mineral levels and a more balanced healthier omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio.
I recently compared eggs I bought at the grocery store with a batch of eggs I got at a farm stand where the chickens were free roaming and healthy.
Most people don't realize that there's a major difference because they've never bought real eggs from healthy chickens... The eggs from the grocery store had pale yellow yolks and thin weak shells. On the other hand, the healthier free range eggs from the local farm had strong thick shells and deep orange colored yolks indicating much higher nutrition levels and carotenoids... and just a healthier egg in general.
This is due to the fact that a free-roaming hen allowed to roam on plenty of land will eat a variety of greens, insects, worms, etc transferring MUCH higher levels of nutrients to the eggs compared to an unhealthy hen that is trapped inside a dark factory farm hen house in horrible conditions and fed nothing but piles of corn and soy.  It's a DRASTIC difference in the nutrition that you get from the egg.
So next time a health or fitness professional tells you that egg whites are superior (because of their "fat-phobic" mentality towards dietary fats), you can quietly ignore their advice knowing that you now understand the REAL deal about egg yolks.
And can we all please STOP with this sillyness about eating an omelete with 4-5 egg whites and only 1 egg yolk... If you want real taste and real health benefits, we'd all be better off eating ALL of our eggs with the yolks.
After all, do you REALLY think that our ancestors thousands of years ago threw out the yolks and only ate the egg whites?  NOT A CHANCE!  They intuitively knew that all of the nutrition was found in the yolks.  But our modern society has been brainwashed with misinformation about fats and cholesterol.
Another interesting study about eggs...
I read a study recently that compared groups of people that ate egg breakfasts vs groups of people that ate cereal or bagel-based breakfasts.  The results of the study showed that the egg eaters lost or maintained a healthier bodyweight, while the cereal/bagel eaters gained weight. 
It was hypothesized that the egg eaters actually ate less calories during the remainder of the day because their appetite was more satisfied compared to the cereal/bagel eaters who would have been more prone to wild blood sugar swings and food cravings.
Oh, one last thing I almost forgot... I personally eat 4 whole eggs almost every day with breakfast, and I maintain single-digit bodyfat most of the year. 
Enjoy your eggs and get a leaner body!